GENERAL DATA PROTECTION REGULATION AND DATA PROTECTION ACT 2018

This table contains extracts and summaries of legislation using among other things the headings of paragraphs in the Schedules to the UK Data Protection Act 2018 ('DPA'). After identifying relevant paragraphs in those Schedules, users of this table should always use the DPA links provided to refer to the full text of those paragraphs, in order to identify their precise scope and to identify the 'listed GDPR provisions'. (See Summary of Data Protection Act 2018 for further explanation.)

Item Reference       Article 4 Link
1 4. Article 4 GDPR 4
2 4. Definitions GDPR 4
3 4. For the purposes of this Regulation: GDPR 4
4 4.(1) (1) 'personal data' means any information relating to an identified or identifiable natural person ('data subject'); an identifiable natural person is one who can be identified, directly or indirectly, in particular by reference to an identifier such as a name, an identification number, location data, an online identifier or to one or more factors specific to the physical, physiological, genetic, mental, economic, cultural or social identity of that natural person; GDPR 4
5 4.(2) (2) 'processing' means any operation or set of operations which is performed on personal data or on sets of personal data, whether or not by automated means, such as collection, recording, organisation, structuring, storage, adaptation or alteration, retrieval, consultation, use, disclosure by transmission, dissemination or otherwise making available, alignment or combination, restriction, erasure or destruction; GDPR 4
6 4.(3) (3) 'restriction of processing' means the marking of stored personal data with the aim of limiting their processing in the future; GDPR 4
7 4.(4) (4) 'profiling' means any form of automated processing of personal data consisting of the use of personal data to evaluate certain personal aspects relating to a natural person, in particular to analyse or predict aspects concerning that natural person's performance at work, economic situation, health, personal preferences, interests, reliability, behaviour, location or movements; GDPR 4
8 4.(5) (5) 'pseudonymisation' means the processing of personal data in such a manner that the personal data can no longer be attributed to a specific data subject without the use of additional information, provided that such additional information is kept separately and is subject to technical and organisational measures to ensure that the personal data are not attributed to an identified or identifiable natural person; GDPR 4
9 4.(6) (6) 'filing system' means any structured set of personal data which are accessible according to specific criteria, whether centralised, decentralised or dispersed on a functional or geographical basis; GDPR 4
10 4.(7) (7) 'controller' means the natural or legal person, public authority, agency or other body which, alone or jointly with others, determines the purposes and means of the processing of personal data; where the purposes and means of such processing are determined by Union or Member State law, the controller or the specific criteria for its nomination may be provided for by Union or Member State law; GDPR 4
11 4.(8) (8) 'processor' means a natural or legal person, public authority, agency or other body which processes personal data on behalf of the controller; GDPR 4
12 4.(9) (9) 'recipient' means a natural or legal person, public authority, agency or another body, to which the personal data are disclosed, whether a third party or not. However, public authorities which may receive personal data in the framework of a particular inquiry in accordance with Union or Member State law shall not be regarded as recipients; the processing of those data by those public authorities shall be in compliance with the applicable data protection rules according to the purposes of the processing; GDPR 4
13 4.(10) (10) 'third party' means a natural or legal person, public authority, agency or body other than the data subject, controller, processor and persons who, under the direct authority of the controller or processor, are authorised to process personal data; GDPR 4
14 4.(11) (11) 'consent' of the data subject means any freely given, specific, informed and unambiguous indication of the data subject's wishes by which he or she, by a statement or by a clear affirmative action, signifies agreement to the processing of personal data relating to him or her; GDPR 4
15 4.(12) (12) 'personal data breach' means a breach of security leading to the accidental or unlawful destruction, loss, alteration, unauthorised disclosure of, or access to, personal data transmitted, stored or otherwise processed; GDPR 4
16 4.(13) (13) 'genetic data' means personal data relating to the inherited or acquired genetic characteristics of a natural person which give unique information about the physiology or the health of that natural person and which result, in particular, from an analysis of a biological sample from the natural person in question; GDPR 4
17 4.(14) (14) 'biometric data' means personal data resulting from specific technical processing relating to the physical, physiological or behavioural characteristics of a natural person, which allow or confirm the unique identification of that natural person, such as facial images or dactyloscopic data; GDPR 4
18 4.(15) (15) 'data concerning health' means personal data related to the physical or mental health of a natural person, including the provision of health care services, which reveal information about his or her health status; GDPR 4
19 4.(16) (16) 'main establishment' means: (a) as regards a controller with establishments in more than one Member State, the place of its central administration in the Union, unless the decisions on the purposes and means of the processing of personal data are taken in another establishment of the controller in the Union and the latter establishment has the power to have such decisions implemented, in which case the establishment having taken such decisions is to be considered to be the main establishment; (b) as regards a processor with establishments in more than one Member State, the place of its central administration in the Union, or, if the processor has no central administration in the Union, the establishment of the processor in the Union where the main processing activities in the context of the activities of an establishment of the processor take place to the extent that the processor is subject to specific obligations under this Regulation; GDPR 4
20 4.(17) (17) 'representative' means a natural or legal person established in the Union who, designated by the controller or processor in writing pursuant to Article 27, represents the controller or processor with regard to their respective obligations under this Regulation; GDPR 4
21 4.(18) (18) 'enterprise' means a natural or legal person engaged in an economic activity, irrespective of its legal form, including partnerships or associations regularly engaged in an economic activity; GDPR 4
22 4.(19) (19) 'group of undertakings' means a controlling undertaking and its controlled undertakings; GDPR 4
23 4.(20) (20) 'binding corporate rules' means personal data protection policies which are adhered to by a controller or processor established on the territory of a Member State for transfers or a set of transfers of personal data to a controller or processor in one or more third countries within a group of undertakings, or group of enterprises engaged in a joint economic activity; GDPR 4
24 4.(21) (21) 'supervisory authority' means an independent public authority which is established by a Member State pursuant to Article 51; GDPR 4
25 4.(22) (22) 'supervisory authority concerned' means a supervisory authority which is concerned by the processing of personal data because: (a) the controller or processor is established on the territory of the Member State of that supervisory authority; (b) data subjects residing in the Member State of that supervisory authority are substantially affected or likely to be substantially affected by the processing; or (c) a complaint has been lodged with that supervisory authority; GDPR 4
26 4.(23) (23) 'cross-border processing' means either: (a) processing of personal data which takes place in the context of the activities of establishments in more than one Member State of a controller or processor in the Union where the controller or processor is established in more than one Member State; or (b) processing of personal data which takes place in the context of the activities of a single establishment of a controller or processor in the Union but which substantially affects or is likely to substantially affect data subjects in more than one Member State. GDPR 4
27 4.(24) (24) 'relevant and reasoned objection' means an objection to a draft decision as to whether there is an infringement of this Regulation, or whether envisaged action in relation to the controller or processor complies with this Regulation, which clearly demonstrates the significance of the risks posed by the draft decision as regards the fundamental rights and freedoms of data subjects and, where applicable, the free flow of personal data within the Union; GDPR 4
28 4.(25) (25) 'information society service' means a service as defined in point (b) of Article 1(1) of Directive (EU) 2015/1535 of the European Parliament and of the Council (19); GDPR 4
29 4.(26) (26) 'international organisation' means an organisation and its subordinate bodies governed by public international law, or any other body which is set up by, or on the basis of, an agreement between two or more countries. GDPR 4
Item Reference Sections of the Data Protection Act 2018 which affect Article 4 Link
30 s. Meaning of certain terms used in the GDPR
31 s. 3 Terms relating to the processing of personal data DPA s.3
32 s. 3 (1) This section defines some terms used in this Act. DPA s.3
33 s. 3 (2) "Personal data" means any information relating to an identified or identifiable living individual (subject to subsection (14)(c)). DPA s.3
34 s. 3 (3) "Identifiable living individual" means a living individual who can be identified, directly or indirectly, in particular by reference to—
(a) an identifier such as a name, an identification number, location data or an online identifier, or
(b) one or more factors specific to the physical, physiological, genetic, mental, economic, cultural or social identity of the individual.
DPA s.3
35 s. 3 (4) "Processing", in relation to information, means an operation or set of operations which is performed on information, or on sets of information, such as—
(a) collection, recording, organisation, structuring or storage,
(b) adaptation or alteration,
(c) retrieval, consultation or use,
(d) disclosure by transmission, dissemination or otherwise making available,
(e) alignment or combination, or
(f) restriction, erasure or destruction, (subject to subsection (14)(c) and sections 5(7), 29(2) and 82(3), which make provision about references to processing in the different Parts of this Act).
DPA s.3
36 s. 3 (5) "Data subject" means the identified or identifiable living individual to whom personal data relates. DPA s.3
37 s. 3 (6) "Controller" and "processor", in relation to the processing of personal data to which Chapter 2 or 3 of Part 2, Part 3 or Part 4 applies, have the same meaning as in that Chapter or Part (see sections 5, 6, 32 and 83 and see also subsection (14)(d)). DPA s.3
38 s. 3 (7) "Filing system" means any structured set of personal data which is accessible according to specific criteria, whether held by automated means or manually and whether centralised, decentralised or dispersed on a functional or geographical basis. DPA s.3
39 s. 6 Meaning of "controller"
(1) The definition of "controller" in Article 4(7) of the GDPR has effect subject to—
(a) subsection (2),
(b) section 209, and
(c) section 210.
(2) For the purposes of the GDPR, where personal data is processed only—
(a) for purposes for which it is required by an enactment to be processed, and
(b) by means by which it is required by an enactment to be processed,
the person on whom the obligation to process the data is imposed by the enactment (or, if different, one of the enactments) is the controller.
DPA s.6
40 s. 7 Meaning of "public authority" and "public body"
(1) For the purposes of the GDPR, the following (and only the following) are "public authorities" and "public bodies" under the law of the United Kingdom—
(a) a public authority as defined by the Freedom of Information Act 2000,
(b) a Scottish public authority as defined by the Freedom of Information (Scotland) Act 2002 (asp 13), and
(c) an authority or body specified or described by the Secretary of State in regulations,
subject to subsections (2), (3) and (4).
(2) An authority or body that falls within subsection (1) is only a "public authority" or "public body" for the purposes of the GDPR when performing a task carried out in the public interest or in the exercise of official authority vested in it.
(3)The references in subsection (1)(a) and (b) to public authorities and Scottish public authorities as defined by the Freedom of Information Act 2000 and the Freedom of Information (Scotland) Act 2002 (asp 13) do not include any of the following that fall within those definitions-
(a) a parish council in England;
(b) a community council in Wales;
(c) a community council in Scotland;
(d) a parish meeting constituted under section 13 of the Local Government Act 1972;
(e) a community meeting constituted under section 27 of that Act;
(f) charter trustees constituted-
(i) under section 246 of that Act,
(ii) under Part 1 of the Local Government and Public Involvement in Health Act 2007, or
(iii) by the Charter Trustees Regulations 1996 (S.I. 1996/263).
(4) The Secretary of State may by regulations provide that a person specified or described in the regulations that is a public authority described in subsection (1)(a) or (b) is not a "public authority" or "public body" for the purposes of the GDPR.
(5) Regulations under this section are subject to the affirmative resolution procedure.
DPA s.7
41 s. 20 Meaning of "court"
Section 5(1) (terms used in this Chapter to have the same meaning as in the GDPR) does not apply to references in this Chapter to a court and, accordingly, such references do not include a tribunal.
DPA s.20
42 s. 204 Meaning of "health professional" and "social work professional" DPA s.204
43 s. 205 General interpretation [contains additional definitions] DPA s.205
44 s. 206 Index of defined expressions DPA s.206
Item Reference       GDPR Recitals which affect Article 4
45 Recital 15 (15) In order to prevent creating a serious risk of circumvention, the protection of natural persons should be technologically neutral and should not depend on the techniques used. The protection of natural persons should apply to the processing of personal data by automated means, as well as to manual processing, if the personal data are contained or are intended to be contained in a filing system. Files or sets of files, as well as their cover pages, which are not structured according to specific criteria should not fall within the scope of this Regulation.
46 Recital 26 (26) The principles of data protection should apply to any information concerning an identified or identifiable natural person. Personal data which have undergone pseudonymisation, which could be attributed to a natural person by the use of additional information should be considered to be information on an identifiable natural person. To determine whether a natural person is identifiable, account should be taken of all the means reasonably likely to be used, such as singling out, either by the controller or by another person to identify the natural person directly or indirectly. To ascertain whether means are reasonably likely to be used to identify the natural person, account should be taken of all objective factors, such as the costs of and the amount of time required for identification, taking into consideration the available technology at the time of the processing and technological developments. The principles of data protection should therefore not apply to anonymous information, namely information which does not relate to an identified or identifiable natural person or to personal data rendered anonymous in such a manner that the data subject is not or no longer identifiable. This Regulation does not therefore concern the processing of such anonymous information, including for statistical or research purposes.
47 Recital 30 (30) Natural persons may be associated with online identifiers provided by their devices, applications, tools and protocols, such as internet protocol addresses, cookie identifiers or other identifiers such as radio frequency identification tags. This may leave traces which, in particular when combined with unique identifiers and other information received by the servers, may be used to create profiles of the natural persons and identify them.
48 Recital 31 (31) Public authorities to which personal data are disclosed in accordance with a legal obligation for the exercise of their official mission, such as tax and customs authorities, financial investigation units, independent administrative authorities, or financial market authorities responsible for the regulation and supervision of securities markets should not be regarded as recipients if they receive personal data which are necessary to carry out a particular inquiry in the general interest, in accordance with Union or Member State law. The requests for disclosure sent by the public authorities should always be in writing, reasoned and occasional and should not concern the entirety of a filing system or lead to the interconnection of filing systems. The processing of personal data by those public authorities should comply with the applicable data-protection rules according to the purposes of the processing.
49 Recital 32 (32) Consent should be given by a clear affirmative act establishing a freely given, specific, informed and unambiguous indication of the data subject's agreement to the processing of personal data relating to him or her, such as by a written statement, including by electronic means, or an oral statement. This could include ticking a box when visiting an internet website, choosing technical settings for information society services or another statement or conduct which clearly indicates in this context the data subject's acceptance of the proposed processing of his or her personal data. Silence, pre-ticked boxes or inactivity should not therefore constitute consent. Consent should cover all processing activities carried out for the same purpose or purposes. When the processing has multiple purposes, consent should be given for all of them. If the data subject's consent is to be given following a request by electronic means, the request must be clear, concise and not unnecessarily disruptive to the use of the service for which it is provided.
50 Recital 34 (34) Genetic data should be defined as personal data relating to the inherited or acquired genetic characteristics of a natural person which result from the analysis of a biological sample from the natural person in question, in particular chromosomal, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) or ribonucleic acid (RNA) analysis, or from the analysis of another element enabling equivalent information to be obtained.
51 Recital 35 (35) Personal data concerning health should include all data pertaining to the health status of a data subject which reveal information relating to the past, current or future physical or mental health status of the data subject. This includes information about the natural person collected in the course of the registration for, or the provision of, health care services as referred to in Directive 2011/24/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council (9) to that natural person; a number, symbol or particular assigned to a natural person to uniquely identify the natural person for health purposes; information derived from the testing or examination of a body part or bodily substance, including from genetic data and biological samples; and any information on, for example, a disease, disability, disease risk, medical history, clinical treatment or the physiological or biomedical state of the data subject independent of its source, for example from a physician or other health professional, a hospital, a medical device or an in vitro diagnostic test.
52 Recital 36 (36) The main establishment of a controller in the Union should be the place of its central administration in the Union, unless the decisions on the purposes and means of the processing of personal data are taken in another establishment of the controller in the Union, in which case that other establishment should be considered to be the main establishment. The main establishment of a controller in the Union should be determined according to objective criteria and should imply the effective and real exercise of management activities determining the main decisions as to the purposes and means of processing through stable arrangements. That criterion should not depend on whether the processing of personal data is carried out at that location. The presence and use of technical means and technologies for processing personal data or processing activities do not, in themselves, constitute a main establishment and are therefore not determining criteria for a main establishment. The main establishment of the processor should be the place of its central administration in the Union or, if it has no central administration in the Union, the place where the main processing activities take place in the Union. In cases involving both the controller and the processor, the competent lead supervisory authority should remain the supervisory authority of the Member State where the controller has its main establishment, but the supervisory authority of the processor should be considered to be a supervisory authority concerned and that supervisory authority should participate in the cooperation procedure provided for by this Regulation. In any case, the supervisory authorities of the Member State or Member States where the processor has one or more establishments should not be considered to be supervisory authorities concerned where the draft decision concerns only the controller. Where the processing is carried out by a group of undertakings, the main establishment of the controlling undertaking should be considered to be the main establishment of the group of undertakings, except where the purposes and means of processing are determined by another undertaking.
53 Recital 37 (37) A group of undertakings should cover a controlling undertaking and its controlled undertakings, whereby the controlling undertaking should be the undertaking which can exert a dominant influence over the other undertakings by virtue, for example, of ownership, financial participation or the rules which govern it or the power to have personal data protection rules implemented. An undertaking which controls the processing of personal data in undertakings affiliated to it should be regarded, together with those undertakings, as a group of undertakings.
Item Reference       Related Guidance which affects Article 4
54 ICO guidance on What's new Guidance
55 ICO guidance on Key definitions Guidance
56 ICO guidance on What is personal data? Guidance
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